(Oxidative Stress), Inflammatory, and Neurological Particularities
Ovidiu-Dumitru Ilie, Alin Ciobica, Jack McKenna,2Bogdan Doroftei, and Ioannis Mavroudis
The etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a highly debated topic. Despite the progressive increase in the number of patients diagnosed with PD over the last couple of decades, the causes remain largely unknown. This report is aimed at highlighting the main features of the microbial communities which have been termed “the second brain” that may be a major participant in the etiopathophysiology of PD. It is possible that dysbiosis could be caused by an overactivity of proinflammatory cytokines which act on the gastrointestinal tract as well as infections. The majority of patients who are diagnosed with PD display gastrointestinal symptoms as one of the earliest features. In addition, an unbalanced cycle of oxidative stress caused by dysbacteriosis may have the effect of gradually promoting PD’s specific phenotype. Thus, it seems that bacteria possess the ability to manipulate the brain by initiating specific responses, defining their capability to configure the human body, with oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in preventing infections but also in activating related signaling pathways.